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瑞克.艾倫.羅斯:法輪功是邪教嗎?(中英對照)
   2009-02-02   凱風網   作者:瑞克·羅斯 李芬(編譯)

  以下是瑞克.艾倫.羅斯(Rick Ross)先生參加2009年1月中國社會科學院邪教問題研究中心主辦的“膜拜團體研究國際論壇”所陳述的論文,由中國社會科學院刊印出版。

 

 


引 言


我的工作涉及1982年以來的邪教、有爭議的團體及運動,還包括向數百個受影響的家庭、心理健康專業人員、律師、神職人員、執法部門和新聞媒體提供專業咨詢。

我在美國許多法庭案例中擁有專家證人資格并被認可,其中包括在美國聯邦法院出庭作證。我的法庭證詞通常集中于破壞性團體的行為,包括他們為了招募新信徒所采取的說服技巧及產生的不正當影響。

我是美國新澤西州羅斯研究所的創始人和執行主席。羅斯研究所是一個非盈利性的免稅教育機構,專門從事破壞性膜拜團體、有爭議團體和運動的研究。研究人員與新聞媒體經常使用羅斯研究所檔案文件作為信息資源,其中包含數千份文件,以及數百條各邪教組織、團體、運動及相關主題細目。我通過羅斯研究所每年回復上千條咨詢。

羅斯研究所檔案中的其中一個細目就是關于法輪大法,即法輪功,還包括其創始人李洪志的教義。法輪大法,創建于1992年,是其創始人李洪志把各種教義及練習方法的特殊混合,包括道教、佛教,還提及了外星人,以及通過一套指定的練習及冥想手法進行訓練。

在專門討論法輪功的邪教方面問題前,我想先提供一個關于邪教組織的定義,這個定義更多地取決于其行為,而非教義。

邪教團體的定義

以下邪教團體的定義由著名精神病學家與作家羅伯特·J·利夫頓(Robert Jay Lifton)制定,并在1981年首次以《邪教團體的形成》(Cult Formation)為題進行發表,這個定義的重點主要取決于三個標準:

1、一個日益成為膜拜對象的擁有超凡魅力的領導人,一般原則同樣在團體組成的最初起著重要作用,但可能會漸漸失去力量;

2、一個強制性勸誘或者思想改革的進程;

3、領導人及其執政集團在經濟、性及其他方面對組織成員的剝削。

法輪大法與利夫頓的三條標準

 一個日益成為膜拜對象的擁有超凡魅力的領導人

由李洪志所做的唯我獨尊的主張,被法輪功練習者毫無條件接受,并成為了該組織的界定法則。

比如,據稱“李大師”擁有超能力。李先生聲稱通曉“宇宙的最高機密”,并聲稱除了“全能的法”外,“沒有宗教能夠拯救人類”,這是他專門提出的。因此,他把自己定義成為了人類的救星。他在《轉法輪》一書中的自傳中稱他八歲時“得上乘大法”。李洪志的教義還包括轉動的“法輪”,他稱能夠把這個神秘的“法輪”植入信徒們的腹部,在里面不斷運動。

此類關于領導者荒謬而特有的言論符合了個人驅動型邪教團體的典型特征。

法輪大法信徒們相信李洪志永遠是對的,他們不允許對李洪志所謂超自然力量、教義或者主張的基本觀點進行質疑。對于真正的信徒,李洪志具有絕對權威性和可靠性,因此遠遠超出他們所能想到的合理懷疑范圍。

信徒們個人崇拜的例子包括,法輪功信徒經營了一個電視網絡及“大紀元時報”,李洪志通過這二者在信徒中間進行有效地煽動。一些信徒還維護了眾多網站,還有一些用以傳授李先生教義的學校。全世界頻繁的公眾示威和上演的運動也反映出了他的追隨者的個人崇拜。

雖然李洪志一直在講“真、善、忍”,但無論他還是他的信徒們在面對批評質疑或者質詢時,卻并未表現出任何寬容。在法輪大法內部,李洪志是不允許信徒質疑組織的基本觀點的,也不允許質疑來自外部的批評,他們通常把這些批評定性為“迫害”。

堅持不懈對李洪志和法輪大法提出質疑的批評者們已再三受到人身攻擊、起訴威脅和頻繁訴訟。

李洪志是絕對的、獨裁的領導者,幾乎沒有任何人提出問責,在法輪大法內部,他的個人權力與影響力似乎沒有任何限制。

一個強制性勸誘或者思想改革的進程

社會學家Richard J. Ofshe解釋道:“強制性勸誘和思想改革也即通過脅迫手段、說服、或者操縱人與團體間影響力等,產生實質行為及態度變化的社會影響能力的過程。”根據Ofshe的“激烈的人際和心理攻擊,破壞個人的自我意識”和在“一個有組織的同齡群體”框架內“促進整合”。

李洪志通過法輪功宣揚了一些關于外部世界不切實際的恐慌,比如臨近的大災難、邪惡的陰謀與迫害等等。他告訴他的信徒地球將會爆炸,但他可以阻止爆炸。他還稱“神”將摧毀那些他不喜歡的人,他的追隨者必須按照他所指定的“精神修行”方法進行修煉,風險即可解除。

對于法輪功信徒而言,沒有任何正當理由能夠違背或離開組織。離開組織的前信徒往往是錯誤的,受到否定,甚至被看成是“邪惡的”。雖然他們看起來可以自由離開,但他們往往會害怕離開所產生的后果。

李先生要求他的信徒不斷堅持“修煉”,不斷“修煉”直至達到“圓滿”,作為一個普通人,在他們的有生之年,大約沒有人能夠真正實現這個愿望。這樣的圓滿當然在想像中不斷推遲,只能在“其他空間”實現。

除了修煉,李洪志強制勸誘計劃很大程度上依靠不切實際的擔心和偏見,其目的最終是為了孤立和控制他的信徒。“李大師”操縱著信徒們的思想和感情以達到某些看似預定和想要得到的心態。

在李先生的世界觀中,混血兒是邪惡外星人陰謀的一部分,他在1998年瑞士講法中稱:“外星人通過混合人類種族,使人類擺脫神。”“混血兒”理應被排除在“真”之外,因為他們“無根可循,天堂沒人照顧他們。他們不屬于任何地方,沒有任何地方能夠接納他們……更高的層次不承認這樣的人類。”李先生說,混血兒結合的后代因此會“智力不完善”或“擁有不健全的身體”。在這種情況下,只有他,李大師,可以幫助和“照顧他們” (即解決“不健全的”狀態) 。然而,前提是“他們必須進行修煉”。

李洪志同樣鼓動仇恨同性戀。他在《轉法輪(卷二)》說:“丑惡的同性戀反映出此時失去理智的骯臟心理變態。”《轉法輪(卷二)》1996年翻譯成英文。李洪志在瑞士講法中稱同性戀人群將被“神”“銷毀”。1998年,德國法蘭克福法會上,當問到同戀性能否修煉法輪功時,李先生回答:“可以修煉,但必須改掉這個不好的行為。”

李洪志教導信徒讓自己的思想與感情服從法輪大法的教義,他們本質上相信“李大師”已經安排好一切,是他們的保護神。

在談及與法輪大法的經歷時,邪教專家和臨床心理學家瑪格麗特·辛格說一個練習者“居然會說‘不要思考,只要背誦師父的經文。’”在法輪功許多可疑的心理控制訓練中,“停止思考”和不斷“背誦師父的經文”的要求與美國信息研究者與邪教專家Flo Conway和Jim Siegelman在他們的著作《美國突發性人格變化的流行》(Snapping: America's Epidemic of Sudden Personality Change)一書中所提的邪教控制的主要標準一致。

幾乎和所有主要邪教和類似邪教的組織一樣,法輪功以不要思考或“精神控制”的某些形式作為他日常計劃的一部分。這個過程可能包括重復祈禱、誦經、神神叨叨、自我催眠或者冥想的不同方法。這類方法,如果訓練適度,可能會有利于身體和精神健康……但是長期受到精神控制,突然重新調整到不思考的新環境中,則可能會使大腦生理受損。我們發現,當這種情況發生時,大腦的信息處理能力可能會中斷或進入一種完全中止……迷失方向,脫離……幻覺,錯覺,而且,在極端的情況下,大腦可能完全萎縮。

領導人及其執政集團在經濟、性及其他方面對組織成員的剝削

法輪功前信徒、家屬和其他相關人員經常敘述同樣的虐待指控,這反映了類似的不滿模式。

李先生教導他的信徒,疾病是由病人前世或者今生的邪惡行為引發的。根據他的教義,現代醫療治愈的只是疾病的癥狀,而不能治愈根本的精神原因,而這只能通過修煉法輪功才能真正治愈。李洪志在《轉法輪》中稱:“修煉大法是使你的身體痊愈的唯一方法。”

我收到關于法輪功的投訴往往是與“修行”教義直接相關,這可能會妨礙病人看病吃藥。這些教義直接導致的結果是,據說一些李先生的信徒因忽視醫治死亡,而許多其他信徒的病情則不必要地惡化。

我還收到嚴厲的投訴,稱法輪功在美國引發家庭隔閡,主要發生在家庭成員質疑或者批評李先生和他教義的家庭當中。

應當指出的是, “李大師”顯然已通過他的法輪大法積累了大量的資產。1995年,李先生移居到美國,據稱,1998年他在紐約買了一套價值293500美元的房子,第二年,又在新澤西州購買了一套房價值580000美元。這兩套房的總值在今天超過一百萬美元。

與法輪功信徒的交流

在與法輪功成員電子郵件交流的過程中,我通常著重于以下三個領域:

種族歧視和同性戀:我特別詢問過法輪功成員,李先生把混血兒童稱為“雜交的”和“不健全的”,他們是如何看待李先生這類種族歧視的教義?

一名法輪功練習者回復道:“我的理解是,當神創造人類,我們則被創造成了上帝的形象[原文如此] ,不同的神創造了不同的種族[原文]。當由兩個不同民族的人組成婚姻的孩子出生后,很難追溯孩子的原生地,所以,孩子難以存活。”

在捍衛李洪志同性戀聲明中,一名法輪功成員說:“其實,所有正教,包括基督教,看待這個問題都是一樣的,即同性戀者很難上天堂。”

忽視醫療:我向法輪功成員咨詢他們由于被捆綁在信條中而忽視醫療的相關報道。

在回答關于“李大師的”老年婦女修煉法輪功后經期重新開始的離奇說法時,一名法輪功成員說:“你能否證明,修煉法輪功的老年婦女‘沒有’恢復月經?甚至,你有沒有考慮過李先生在這一方面的教義可能是真的?我肯定它們是真實的。我建議您在嘲弄這些教義之前,先多做一些研究。”

抗議:公開抗議似乎已經成為法輪功的一個主要功能。

最令人毛骨悚然的例子是2001年發生在中國的自焚抗議,其中包括成年人和未成年孩子。然而,法輪功成員往往拒絕承擔這一悲劇的任何責任,全然不顧幸存者發表的公開聲明,而推托這是政府的“陰謀”。

悲劇幸存者之一,一位母親解釋說:“我們想向政府展示法輪功是好的。” 她的女兒評論說:“我認為,法輪功已經發展成為一個反人類、反社會的邪教組織。”

我的電子郵件交談中一致的模式是無論這個組織的行為如何極端或有害,無論李先生的教義如何充滿憎恨,法輪功始終是“好的”,“李大師”從來不會錯。

瑪格麗特·辛格曾經簡要概括:“如果你想知道什么是邪教,你只要讀讀他們(法輪功信徒)的自我描述就好了。”

參考資料:
  1、李洪志,《轉法輪》
2、法輪功明慧網英文版所刊登的文章
4、瑪格麗特·辛格博士生前關于法輪功的實況采訪
5、瑪格麗特·辛格,《邪教在我們中間》,1996年
6、Flo Conway和Jim Siegelman,《美國突發性人格變化的流行》第二版,2005年

 

  原文網址:http://www.cultnews.com/?p=2346

 

Is Falun Gong a Cult?

Cultnews.com By: Rick Ross

The following paper was presented by Rick Ross at the January 2009 International Forum on Cultic Studies sponsored by the Centre for the Study of Destructive Cults in China and published by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

Introduction

My work in the area of cults, controversial groups and movements began in 1982 and has included professionally consulting with hundreds of affected families, mental health professionals, attorneys, clergy, law enforcement and the media.

I have been qualified and accepted as an expert witness across the United States in numerous court cases. This has included testimony given in United States federal courts.

My court testimony typically is focused upon the behavior of destructive groups, their persuasion techniques and the undue influence that such groups often gain over adherents.

I am the founder and Executive Director of the Ross Institute of New Jersey (RI). RI is a nonprofit tax-exempt educational institution devoted to the study of destructive cults, controversial groups and movements.

Researchers and the media often use the Ross Institute Internet Archives as an informational resource. It contains thousands of documents and hundreds of subsections about various cults, groups, movements and related topics.

Each year, through my work at RI, I respond to thousands of inquiries.

One subsection within the RI archives is devoted to Falun Dafa also known as Falun Gong and the teachings of its founder Li Hongzhi.

Falun Dafa, which was founded in 1992, is an idiosyncratic blend of beliefs and practices as assembled by its founder Li Hongzhi. This includes Taoist and Buddhist references predicated upon a belief in extraterrestrials and practiced through a set of prescribed exercises and meditation techniques.

Before specifically discussing the cultic aspects of Falun Dafa, I would like to offer a working definition of a cult determined more by its behavior than by its beliefs.

Definition of a Cult

Noted psychiatrist and author Robert Jay Lifton developed the following definition of a cult. This definition is focused primarily upon three principal criteria and was first published in a paper titled "Cult Formation" in 1981 :

1. a charismatic leader who increasingly becomes an object of worship as the general principles that may have originally sustained the group lose their power;
2. a process of coercive persuasion or thought reform;
3. economic, sexual, and other exploitation of group members by the leader and the ruling coterie.

Falun Dafa and Lifton's three criteria

A charismatic leader who increasingly becomes an object of worship

Exclusive claims made by Li Hongzhi, which are implicitly accepted by Falun Dafa practitioners without exemption, are the defining principles of the group.

For example, "Master Li" purportedly possesses supernatural powers.

Mr. Li claims to know "the top secret of the universe" and says "no religion can save people" but the "almighty Fa," which he exclusively represents. He is therefore essentially the chosen savior of man. The biography in his book "Zhuan Falun" claims that he first recognized his special powers at the age of 8.

Li Hongzhi's teachings also include the spinning "falun," which is a mystical "wheel of law" that he claims to be able to insert into his disciples' abdomens telekinetically.

Such fantastic and exclusive claims about a leader fit the classic profile of a personality-driven cult.

Falun Dafa followers, believe that Li Hongzhi is always right and they are not allowed to question the basic assumptions concerning his purported supernatural powers, teachings and/or opinions. His authority and infallibility appear to be absolute for the true believer, and therefore beyond what Falun Dafa followers consider reasonable doubt.

Examples of the intense devotion Li Hongzhi has effectively engendered among his followers include a television network and a newspaper called "The Epoch Times" both run by Falun Dafa adherents. Devotees also maintain numerous Web sites and there are schools to perpetuate Mr. Li's teachings. Frequent public demonstrations and events staged around the world also reflect the intense devotion of his followers.

While Li Hongzhi talks about "Truthfulness-Compassion-Forbearance," neither he nor his followers actually demonstrate any tolerance concerning critical questions or inquiry. Within Falun Dafa Li's followers are not allowed to question the basic assumptions of the group and criticism from outsiders is often characterized as "persecution."

Persistent critics of Li Hongzhi and Falun Dafa have been repeatedly subjected to personal attacks, threats of litigation and frivolous lawsuits.

Li Hongzhi remains an absolute, authoritarian leader with little if any accountability, and there appears to be no limit to the scope of his personal power and influence within Falun Dafa.

a process of coercive persuasion or thought reform

Sociologist Richard J. Ofshe explains, "Coercive persuasion and thought reform are alternate names for programs of social influence capable of producing substantial behavior and attitude change through the use of coercive tactics, persuasion, and/or interpersonal and group-based influence manipulations."

This is accomplished according to Ofshe by "intense interpersonal and psychological attack to destabilize an individual's sense of self" and "to promote conformity" within the framework of "an organized peer group."

Li Hongzhi through Falun Gong has promoted unreasonable fears about the outside world, such as impending catastrophe, evil conspiracies and persecutions. He teaches his followers that the earth would have been destroyed, but he saved it. He also claims that "gods" will destroy those he disapproves of and that his followers must practice his prescribed program of "spiritual cultivation" or risk obliteration.

For Falun Gong followers, there is no legitimate reason to disagree with and/or leave the organization. Former followers are always wrong in leaving, negative, or even seen as "evil." While they may appear to be free to leave they often fear the consequences.

Mr. Li asks his followers to continuously keep "cultivating" and go on and on "cultivating" until they reach "perfection," something that no one can ever realistically hope to achieve as an ordinary man and woman within their lifetime. Such perfectionism is then supposedly deferred and only reachable in "other dimensions."

Li Hongzhi's program of coercive persuasion largely relies upon the cultivation not only of unreasonable fears but also prejudice, which ultimately serves to isolate and control his followers. "Master Li" manipulates the thinking and feelings of his followers to develop a certain seemingly predetermined and desired mindset.

In Mr. Li's worldview mixed-race people are part of a plot, contrived by the evil extraterrestrials. "By mixing the races of humans, the aliens make humans cast off gods," he told a gathering in Switzerland in 1998.

"Mixed races" are supposedly excluded from the "truth" and "have lost their roots, as if nobody in the paradise will take care of them. They belong to nowhere, and no places would accept them…the higher levels do not recognize such a human race."

According to Mr. Li, the offspring of mixed race unions are therefore "intellectually incomplete" or "with an incomplete body." In such cases, only he, Master Li, can help and "take care of it" (i.e., resolve the "incomplete" state). However, that can be done only if "such a person wants to practice cultivation."

Li Hongzhi also encourages hatred of homosexuals. He has said, "The disgusting homosexuality shows the dirty abnormal psychology of the gay who has lost his ability of reasoning at the present time," Li Hongzhi wrote in Volume II of "Zhuan Falun," or "Turning the Law Wheel," which was translated into English in 1996.

In his talk in Switzerland, Li Hongzhi also stated that gay people would be "eliminated" by "the gods." Asked in Frankfurt, Germany, in 1998 whether gays could practice Falun Gong, Mr. Li answered, "You can cultivate, but you must give up the bad conduct."

Li Hongzhi's disciples are taught to subordinate their own thoughts and feelings to the teachings of Falun Dafa. They essentially come to believe that "Master Li" has arranged everything and is their protection.

In describing her experience with Falun Dafa, cult expert and clinical psychologist Margaret Singer said that a practitioner will "actually say 'Don't Think. Just recite the Master's teaching.' "

Among Falun Dafa's many questionable mind-altering practices, this command to "stop thinking" and continuously "recite the Master's teaching," when heeded, meets the main criterion of cult control American communication researchers and cult experts Flo Conway and Jim Siegelman describe in their book Snapping: America's Epidemic of Sudden Personality Change:

Almost every major cult and cult-like group we came upon teaches some form of not thinking or "mind control" as part of its regular program of activity. The process may take the form of repetitive prayer, chanting, speaking in tongues, self-hypnosis or diverse methods of meditation….Such techniques, when practiced in moderation, may yield real physical and mental health benefits….Prolonged stilling of the mind, however, may wear on the brain physically until it readjusts, suddenly and sharply, to its new condition of not thinking. When that happens, we have found, the brain's information-processing capacities may be disrupted or enter a state of complete suspension…disorientation, detachment…hallucinations, delusions and, in extreme instances, total withdrawal.

exploitation of group members by the leader

Former Falun Dafa followers, the families of devotees and others concerned often relate the same allegations of abuse, which reflect a similar pattern of grievances.

Mr. Li teaches his followers that illness is caused by the evil deeds of a sick person, in this life or a previous one. According to his teachings, modern medicine treats only the symptoms of a disease, and not its underlying spiritual cause, which can be cured only by practicing Falun Gong.

"The only way to find yourself comfortably free of illnesses," Li Hongzhi writes in "Zhuan Falun," "is through cultivation practice!"

The complaints I have received about Falun Dafa are most often directly related to teachings about "spiritual cultivation," which may preclude seeing a doctor and/or taking prescribed medication.

As a result of such teachings some of Mr. Li's followers have reportedly died due to medical neglect, while many others have needlessly exacerbated their medical conditions.

I have also received serious complaints within the United States regarding the damage done by Falun Dafa through family estrangement. This has particularly occurred when families question and/or are critical of Mr. Li and his teachings.

It should be noted that "Master Li" has apparently accumulated substantial assets through his work within Falun Dafa.

Mr. Li moved to United States in 1995. In 1998 he reportedly bought a house in New York for $293,500. Li Hongzhi purchased his second residence in New Jersey for $580,000 the following year. The value of the two residences today may easily exceed a million dollars.

Exchanges with Falun Dafa devotees

In the many email exchanges I have had with Falun Dafa members I have frequently focused on the following three areas:

Racism and homophobia: I have specifically asked Falun Dafa members how they regard Mr. Li's racist teachings, which denigrate the children of interracial unions as "cross bred" and "incomplete."

One Falun Dafa practitioner responded, "My understanding is that when gods created man, we were created to god's image [sic], different races was created [sic] by gods of different races and when a child is born from a marriage of two people from different races it will be hard for the gods to trace the child's origin and therefore hard to save."

In defense of Li Hongzhi's homophobic pronouncements one member remarked, "Actually all orthodox (upright) religions view this matter in the same way, Christianity included, it is very hard to reach heaven when practicing homosexuality."

Medical Neglect: I have questioned Falun Dafa members regarding reports of medical neglect that have been tied to their beliefs.

One member responded concerning "Master Li's" bizarre claim that elderly women would start menstruating again after practicing Falun Dafa. "Can you prove that elderly women who practice Falun Gong DON'T regain their menstrual periods? Have you ever considered the possibility that Li's teachings in this regard are true? I know for a fact that they are true. I suggest you do more research on the subject before mocking these teachings," the member responded.

Protests: Public protests appear to have become a pivotal function of Falun Dafa. The most horrific example was the 2001 self-immolation protest in China, which included adult members and minor children.

However, Falun Dafa members routinely deny any responsibility for this tragedy, which is somehow consigned to the category of a government "conspiracy," despite the public statements made by the survivors.

One mother that survived the tragic event explained, "We wanted to show the government that Falun was good." Her daughter observed, "I think Falun Gong has developed into a cult with anti-human and anti-society characteristics."

The consistent pattern of my email exchanges is that Falun Dafa is always "good" and "Master Li" is never wrong, no matter how extreme or harmful the group behavior or hateful his teachings may be.

Margaret Singer succinctly summarized: "If you want a good description of a cult, all you have to do is read what [Falun Dafa followers] say they are."

Notes:

Robert Jay Lifton, M.D., "Cult Formation," The Harvard Mental Health Letter, February 1981.
Mark Jurkowitz, "Times for a change," Boston Globe, May 31, 2005.
Richard J. Ofshe, Ph.D., "Coercive Persuasion and Attitude Change," Encyclopedia of Sociology, Vol. 1. New York: Macmillan, 2001.
ibid.
Sarah Lubman, "A Chinese Battle on U.S. Soil," San Jose Mercury News, December 23, 2001.
ibid.
"Falun Gong Derided as Authoritarian Sect by Anti-Cult Experts," San Francisco Chronicle, April 29, 2000.
Conway and Siegelman, Snapping, pp 153-154.
Peter Carlson, "For Whom the Gong Tolls," Washington Post, February 27, 2000.
Paul Vallely and Clifford Coonan, "China's Enemy Within: The Story of Falun Gong," The Independent (UK), April 22, 2006.
Jeremy Page, "Survivors say China Falun Gong immolation real," Reuters, April 4, 2002.

References

1. Hongzhi Li, Zhuan Falun (http://www.falundafa.org/book/eng/zfl_new.html).
2. Various articles posted on Falun Gong's Web site, www.clearwisdom.net.
4. The late Professor Margaret Singer's Live Interview on Falun Gong.
5. Margaret Singer, Cults In Our Midst: The Continuing Fight Against Their Hidden Menace. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1996.
6. Flo Conway and Jim Siegelman, Snapping: America's Epidemic of Sudden Personality Change, 2nd ed. New York: Stillpoint Press, 1995/2005.

(Cultnews.com, January 25, 2009)

 
 
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